52-5 Front

Chemical Diversity in Marine Organisms



Dr. Poonam gupta
Assistant Professor
M.M.H.College, Ghaziabad

Dr. Ajet Saxena
Former Scientist
Jubilant Lifesciences, Noida

Pages 108

Year 2018

ISBN: 978-93-87922-52-5

Category: Tag:

Product Description

Natural products have served as a source of food, shelter and drugs to mankind since the advent of civilization. Natural product chemistry has not only enriched modern medicine but has also provided valuable leads for drug designing. It has also contributed greatly to the organic chemistry by way of providing novel chemical structures. Development of newer techniques of isolation, purification and structure elucidation also gained impetus with the advancement of natural product chemistry.
Oceans cover more than 70% of our planet’s surface and life on earth has its origin in the sea. In certain marine ecosystems such as coral reefs or the sea floor, experts estimate that the biological diversity is higher than in tropical rain forests. The overwhelming biological diversity of marine microbes has so far only been explored to a very limited extent. This diversity is believed to give rise to an equally high diversity of secondary metabolites synthesized by the marine microfauna and microflora.
Marine natural products the secondary or non primary metabolites produced by the organisms that live in the sea, have received increasing attention from chemists and pharmacologists during the last two decades. Interest on the part of natural product chemists have probed marine organisms as sources of new and unusual organic molecules while synthetic chemists have followed by targeting these novel structures for development of new analogs and new synthetic methodologies and strategies.
Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The lifesaving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas. Isolation of pure compounds from natural resources have became easier with the application of techniques such as column chromatography, flash chromatography, preparative HPLC, droplet counter current chromatography etc. The different spectroscopic techniques like FAB-MS, HREMS, ESIMS, 2D-NMR spectroscopy (1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, HETCOR and NOESY etc.) and X-ray crystallography have contributed immensely to the structure elucidation and characterization of novel molecules from marine sources. The oceans are a rich source of biodiversity which have not been explored yet.
Chapter-1 Deals with an overview of the present global scenario on Marine natural products chemistry which high lights a number of new compounds isolated and their activities in pharmacology.
Chapter-2 Presents an overview of chemical constituents of sea cucumbers. Sea cucumbers were recorded as a tonic and traditional medicine from ancient times. The chapter covers the diverse compounds isolated from sea cucumbers of Indian coastal regions.
Chapter-3 Deals with the isolation and characterization of some compounds from some sea cucumbers.
Chapter-4 Deals with the investigation of a soft coral Sinularia erecta. Characterization and isolation of a sphingosine and a sesquiterpene are described in addition to other metabolites from chloroform soluble fraction.
Chapter-5 deals with the isolation and characterization of chemical constituents from a mangrove Xylocarpus granatum which are mainly limonoids.